Is It Illegal to Leave Your Dog Chained Outside in Maryland? Here’s What the Law Says

The companionship and unconditional love offered by dogs make them cherished members of many families in Maryland. However, ensuring their well-being extends beyond affection and includes providing for their physical and emotional needs. One practice raising concerns in recent times is the tethering or chaining of dogs outside. While it may seem like a harmless way to contain a pet, the legality and ethical implications of this practice require careful consideration. This article aims to clarify the legal framework surrounding chaining dogs outside in Maryland, exploring both the existing laws and the animal welfare concerns associated with this practice.

Maryland’s Animal Welfare Laws and Regulations

Maryland takes animal welfare seriously, with a comprehensive set of laws and regulations in place to protect animals from neglect and cruelty. The primary legislation governing animal welfare is Section 21-501 of the Maryland Code, also known as the Animal Welfare Act. This Act outlines the minimum standards for the care and treatment of animals, including provisions related to tethering and chaining.

Specifically, Section 21-501(f)(1) of the Act states that “it is unlawful for a person to tether or confine a dog or cat outside for more than 24 hours in a 72-hour period, unless the animal is: (i) accompanied by the owner or the owner’s designee; or (ii) provided with readily accessible shelter from the elements and a continuous supply of potable water.” This provision sets a clear limit on the duration for which a dog can be chained outside and establishes minimum requirements for ensuring their basic needs are met.

However, certain exceptions and limitations exist. For example, dogs used for hunting or guarding livestock are exempt from the 24-hour limitation, provided they are adequately sheltered and given access to water. Additionally, tethering during brief periods for training or exercise is permissible, as long as the dog’s basic needs are met and the duration is reasonable.

Ethical Considerations and Animal Welfare Concerns

While the law outlines the legal boundaries of chaining dogs outside, the ethical implications of this practice deserve deeper consideration. Chaining a dog for extended periods can severely compromise their physical and emotional well-being.

Physical Concerns:

  • Exposure to the elements: Chained dogs lack access to adequate shelter, exposing them to extreme weather conditions like scorching heat, freezing temperatures, and torrential rain. This can lead to heatstroke, hypothermia, dehydration, and other ailments.
  • Restricted movement: The limited range of movement afforded by a chain restricts a dog’s natural inclination to run, play, and explore. This can lead to muscle atrophy, joint problems, and overall physical deterioration.
  • Lack of socialization: Chained dogs often experience social isolation, depriving them of essential interaction with humans and other animals. This can lead to behavioral problems like anxiety, aggression, and depression.

Ethical Considerations and Animal Welfare Concerns (Continued):

  • Boredom and frustration: The monotony and lack of stimulation associated with chaining can lead to boredom and frustration in dogs. This can manifest in destructive behavior, excessive barking, and self-harm.
  • Fear and anxiety: The feeling of being restrained and exposed to the environment can trigger fear and anxiety in dogs. This can result in increased stress levels, trembling, and cowering behavior.
  • Loss of trust and companionship: Chaining can significantly damage the bond between a dog and its owner. The perceived abandonment and lack of interaction can lead to a breakdown in trust and diminish the sense of companionship.

Alternatives to Chaining Dogs Outside

Fortunately, responsible pet ownership offers numerous alternatives to chaining dogs outside that prioritize their well-being and happiness. Here are some viable options:

  • Secure enclosures: Providing a fenced yard or secure outdoor kennel allows dogs to roam freely within a safe boundary while enjoying fresh air and sunshine. This significantly improves their physical and mental well-being compared to chaining.
  • Dog walking services: If a fenced yard is unavailable, hiring professional dog walkers or engaging in regular walks yourself ensures essential exercise and socialization for your furry friend.
  • Pet care alternatives: Boarding facilities or pet sitters can be considered for situations where extended absences are unavoidable. Choosing responsible alternatives ensures your dog’s needs are met during your absence.

Enforcement and Reporting of Violations

If you witness a dog being chained outside in violation of Maryland’s Animal Welfare Act, there are steps you can take to ensure their well-being. Here’s what to do:

  • Contact animal control: The primary responsibility for enforcing animal welfare laws falls on animal control authorities. Reporting suspected violations ensures an official investigation and potential intervention.
  • Gather evidence: If possible, take photos or videos of the chained dog and the surrounding environment. This documentation can be valuable evidence for animal control officers.
  • Act responsibly: Avoid confronting the owner directly or attempting to release the dog yourself. Leave such actions to trained professionals to ensure safety and proper handling.

Remember, advocating for animal welfare is a shared responsibility. By reporting violations and promoting responsible pet ownership practices, we can create a safer and more humane environment for dogs in Maryland.


Chaining dogs outside in Maryland may not be explicitly illegal in every situation, but the ethical concerns outweigh any perceived convenience. Prioritizing the well-being of our canine companions requires providing them with adequate shelter, exercise, and socialization. Investing in responsible pet ownership alternatives demonstrates our commitment to creating a happy and fulfilling life for the dogs we love. By understanding the legal framework, addressing the ethical concerns, and exploring viable alternatives, we can ensure that every dog in Maryland has the opportunity to thrive.


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